5th May 16:25
Cuban forces in Africa. Re:En mi humilde opinión.
Here is a very long article which includes a great deal of artillery vs
tank combat against Cuban forces in Africa. Thus it might be of use to
historians dealing with Cuito Canavale.
---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 03 Mar 97 20:03:34 +0000
From: Sentinel Projects <Sentinel@tragedy.demon.co.uk>
To: "[Army Talk]" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Big Guns G5/G6 155s - For Ivor Rimmer
South Africa's Homegrown G5/G6 55s
Groundpounders like me develop a deep-seated distrust of artillery early
on. A master sergeant once told me that the only thing more accurate than
enemy incoming artillery fire was friendly incoming artillery fire.
Five years ago in El Salvador, as part of a 217-man relief column humping
toward the Atlacatl Immediate Reaction Battalion tactical operations
center, established the day before after fierce and bloody fighting on a
hill called Hacienda El Carmen just east of the Rio Lempa in Usulutan
Province, I found myself trudging across a railroad trestle bridge to
reach our objective. Unbeknownst to me, a battery of 105mm howitzers were
in place directly under the bridge on the west bank of the Rio Lempa.
Without prior announcement, they cut loose with a salvo, and I clearly
remember levitating what seemed like 3 feet off the bridge. Coming down
with one foot between the railroad ties, my previous bad attitude about
"cannon ****ers" was intensified several-fold.
Be that as it may, cannon have their uses. The first certain record of
the use of ordnance, as they are sometimes called, on battlefields in the
western hemisphere was the employment of brass cannon firing iron balls
during the siege of Metz in 1324. They've come a long way since then.
Most of the significant advances in artillery technology took place during
the 19th century. In that time frame the transition from smooth bore to
rifled artillery occurred, and this resulted in important increases in
accuracy and range. By 1867 Alfred Nobel had perfected dynamite, which
increased the explosive power of the projectiles. At about the same time,
Alfred Krupp designed and produced successful breech-loading artillery
pieces that were used with great effect during the Franco-Prussian War of
1870-71. Finally, near the end of the 19th century, Colonel Hippolyte
Langlois, a Frenchman, developed a 75mm cannon with a recoilless carriage
and quick-firing semiautomatic action (propellant gases were used to open
the breech and eject the shell casing).
Since then, enhancement of artillery effectiveness has largely consisted
of sophisticated refinement of these basic elements developed more than a
century ago. Today, no country fields artillery superior to that of the
Republic of South Africa (RSA).
When the South African Defence Force (SADF) marched across the Angolan
border in 1975 to counter Cuban troops supporting the communist MPLA
forces, they were equipped with the same artillery they had used against
the Germans in Italy during World War II. They were clearly outgunned by
the more modem Soviet equipment provided to the Cubans. But within less
than a decade, the South Africans reversed this imbalance in their favor.
Development of both a new artillery piece and ammunition system commenced
in 1976. By 1983, the 155mm G5 towed howitzer had become operational with
the SADF. Its origin, and that of its unique ammunition, can be traced to
the now-defunct Space Research Corporation of Canada, although series
production was established exclusively at Lyttelton Engineering Works
(LEW), an Arrnscor affiliate, in Verwoerdburg outside of Pretoria.
Heart of the G5 is its 155mni/45 caliber barrel (i.e., the barrel length -
6.975 meters - is 45 times the 155mm bore diameter) designed to complement
Extended Range Full Bore Base Bleed (ERFB BB) ammunition. The monobloc
autofrettaged (frettaging is the process of reinforcing the barrel,
originally by placing heated hoops of wrought iron or steel around it that
contracted as they cooled to strengthen it) barrel comes to LEW as a
f****ng manufactured from high-grade steel billets at the Union Steel
Corporation in Vereeniging. Its starting weight of 3.5 metric tons is
reduced by machining to 1.6 metric tons. The bore has 48 grooves, with a
twist of one turn for every 20 caliber lengths.
'Me G5 barrel has an open-type, single-baffle muzzle brake. The breech
mechanism is very similar to that of the U. S. M 198 155nun howitzer and
is semi-automatic with an electrical or mechanical firing mechanism.
Behind the breech is a manually operated pneumatic rammer, on whose tray
the projectile is loaded and slides into the chamber before it is rammed.
While the length of its barrel, almost 23 feet, is partially responsible
for the G5's exceptional accuracy and long range, its superior performance
is largely due to the base bleed ammunition developed for this weapon.
The range of an artillery shell can he increased by reducing "base drag.
" During its flight to the target, an area of low pressure behind the
projectile, caused by its passage through the air, produces drag and
reduces its velocity and hence its range. A cavity in the base of ERFB BB
projectiles contains a small quantity of propellant, which when ignited
bleeds gas into the base region to fill up the low pressure area and
eliminate the drag. This system can add as much as 30 percent to the
maximum range of the shell. With this ammunition, the G5 can reach out
and touch someone more than 25 miles from the muzzle. This matches the
range of the Mark 7 Mod 0 16-inch/50 caliber gun (with barrel length of
more than 66 feet) mounted in the turrets of USS Iowa, class battleships
albeit with a much smaller projectile. Others, such as Austria's
Hirtenberger, Belgium's PRB, the Hellenic Arms Industry (EBO) of Greece,
the People's Republic of China, Spain's SITECSA and Tailey Defense Systems
of the United States have all developed ERFB BB ammunition in recent
years. However, to date, only South Africa has combat tested base bleed
South African extended-range projectiles include high explosive (HE),
screening smoke (SCR SMK), illuminating (ILUM), red phosphorus (RP),
propaganda (PROP) and submunition - anti-personnel/anti-armour (CLSTR).
The hollow-charge submunition projectiles contain 56 individual bomblets
which cover area of 30 x l00 meters in size and will self-destruct on the
ground after three seconds. M57 HE ammunition is of the
high-fragmentation type with welded splines. A TNT-filled version
fragments into 3,032 pieces and another with Composition B filling breaks
into 4,756 pieces. The projectiles can be standard (18.6-mile maximum
range) or base bleed. A six-zone charge system is used to optimize the
projectile/gun combination and give a range overlap for the total
distance. Use of the newly developed M43A3 combustible cartridge
increases the life expectancy of the barrel from 600 to more than 1,200
rounds with the maximum charge. Available fuzes comprise direct action
(superquick or delay), radio proximity (with superquick selectable and
back-up) and electronic time (with direct action back-up).
The G5 carriage has a slightly angled trunnion (the axis shaft on which
the barrel pivots) for balancing the barrel and the recoil forces produced
on firing. During firing the carriage is raised hydraulically on a firing
platform by an auxiliary power unit which also supplies hydraulic power to
raise and the lower the trail wheels and to open and close the trails.
The hydraulic power is also used for the limited self-propelled mode,
which enables the G5 to reach speeds exceeding 10 miles per hour and climb
up ,gradients of 40 percent. The recoil system has a buffer, recuperator
When travelling, the barrel rests over the trails in a clamp. Only two
men are required to get the G5 into action. Elevation and traverse
controls are manual.
To the left of the breech is a dial sight for indirect firing and
direct-fire sight mounted on a mechanism that compensates for trunnion
cant. The fire control computer has processing capability to compensate
in elevation for range, projectile mass, zone of charge and temperature,
all of which is communicated to the gun crew by means of the gun display
unit. It also calculates the equivalent full charge (EFC), recoil length,
number of rounds fired and pressure of each round. There are also alarms
on the gun monitor unit for incomplete recoil run-up, low battery voltage,
limits of firing arc, and a warning device that indicates high chamber
temperature. The application range of the direct sight is 1,200 meters,
but it can operate up to 5,000 meters. Additional optional equipment
includes a fire-control computer, data-entry terminal, muzzle-velocity
****yzer, meterological ground station and special helmet radios for the
Weighing 13.5 metric tons, the G5 is air-transportable in the Lockheed
C130. The G5 is towed by a special gun tractor which also accommodates
the full crew of eight, charges, fuses, primers, and 15 projectile
pallets. A hydraulic crane is used to handle the ammunition.
Soviet bloc countries have traditionally focused on towed artillery for
indirect fire with some recent interest on auxiliary-propelled towed guns,
In general, they still seem to consider the self-propelled (SP) gun as no
more than a second-class tank that moves forward with the infantry and
armor to destroy targets at close range. Few, if any, of their SP weapons
exhibit the stabilizing devices required for consistent indirect fire.
These ComBloc assault guns are almost exclusively "offensive" in
Western views on SP artillery have, on the other hand, stressed their
ability to "keep up with the armor" (some authorities feel this is a
dubious capability) and "shoot and scoot" to avoid retaliatory fire.
Heavy, complicated and expensive, their indirect-fire capabilities
emphasize the "defensive" mindset of the NATO alliance.
Recognizing that while the towed G5 could adequately support their tanks
and highly mechanized infantry it lacked protection against enemy fire,
the South Africans commenced development of an SP gun in 1978. The major
design requirements were 1) fire power, with particular attention to a
high rate of fire, long range, increased lethality and quick engagement of
alternative targets; 2) mobility, with emphasis on high speed, long range,
cross-country capability and quick in/out of action time; 3) protection
against direct enemy fire and counter-bombardment; and 4) standardization
with existing equipment.
The 155mni/45 caliber gun (somewhat modified) and most of its optional
equipment were selected because they would be standardized with the proven
G5 system and its ERFB BB ammunition and, as the 155mm caliber is
world-wide in operation, other 155mm ammunition could be used
interchangeably. Its fume extractor, fitted two-thirds of the way along
the barrel, is constructed of carbon reinforced epoxy which is lightweight
and reduces out-of-balance moments. Directly behind the breech is a
semiautomatic hydraulically operated, electronically controlled flick
rammer for ramming the projectile after the projectile has been placed on
the rammer tray by hand.
Whether offensive or defensive, most SP artillery, with the exception of
the Czech Vzor 77 152mm SP howitzer DANA, rolls about the countryside on
tracks. However, after intensive investigations, the South Africans
determined that, at least for the terrain in which they operated, wheeled
vehicles provided overwhelming tages over tracked equipment. In
comparison with tracks, wheeled operation offers exceptional strategic
mobility (albeit lower tactical mobility), lower cost of acquisition and
maintenance, simplicity of design, less noise and reduced chance of
detection, less crew exhaustion due to better ride characteristics,
superior buoyancy for amphibious applications, ability to move out of
battle range on run-flat tires, much simpler logistic support, less
training, lower fuel consumption, higher maximum speed and a longer range
The G6 Rhino SP six-wheeled gun is now in service with the SADF. It is
used for offensive and defensive fire support with direct firing
capability and used in indirect fire service as a gun, howitzer or mortar.
The G6 has a crew of six, with a driver and five other crew members who
travel inside the turret. During firing, four crew members operate the
gun while the driver and one other member of the crew resupply the
ammunition at the rear. The G6 carries 47 projectiles and 50 charges
together with the fuzes and primers. Nine**** of these rounds are
directly accessible from inside the turret. For continuous bombardments,
ammunition can be fed from outside via a transfer chute. Three crew
members can replenish all the main weapon ammunition in 15 minutes. A
firing rate of four rounds per minute can he achieved for a period of 15
minutes. Experienced personnel can fire a burst of three rounds in 21
The G6 is also equipped with a gun display unit to communicate firing
orders to the crew. A gun-monitor system can also be provided, with all
the alarm functions and a chamber temperature warning device. An optional
direct link between the gun display unit and gun control system permits
automatic laying of the gun.
To the left of the breech is a panoramic sight and direct-fire system
mounted on a compensating mechanism. Range capabilities of the direct and
indirect sight is the same as for the G5. To enhance its performance, the
G6 can be equipped with a navigation system and inertial fire directing
system while still retaining the direct fire capabilities.
In and out of action times are an astounding 60 and 30 seconds,
respectively, including lowering and raising of the four hydraulically
operated stablizer legs. From one position, the G6 can cover an area of
415 square miles. It can elevate from minus five degrees to 75 degrees in
five seconds and traverse through 80 degrees in seven seconds.
Another superb feature of the G6 is its exceptional mobility. It can
reach a speed of almost 55 mph on the open road, and it has a strategic
range of 375 miles without refuelling. Maximum speed over desert terrain
is 20 mph with a turning circle of 105 feet in sand and 82 feet on the
The G6's mobility is, in no small measure, due to the run-flat tires used
on the G5/G6 artillery series (as well as the Ratel AFV). South Africa
originally employed Michelin tires of the type found on heavy-duty grading
equipment, but quickly found the sidewall construction too thin. In
addition, the tread design was incorrect for arid-region terrain, so the
South Africans designed their own instead. Called "Sand Trails," they
have a 28-ply rating, and with their special run-flat insert a vehicle
equipped with them can be driven for about 45 miles at 25 mph with one or
more tires flat. Air pressure in these 2l.OOx25 tires is controlled by
the driver to provide maximum flotation.
The vehicle hull (manufactured by Sandock Austral) and turret are
fabricated from high strength armor steel and offer all around protection
from 7.62x51 mm NATO armor piercing (AP) ammunition and artillery
fragments, and protection from 20mm AP from a 60-degree frontal angle.
The double-armored floor offers increased protection against mines. The
driver's side and front windows provide the same degree of protection as
the hull and excellent visibility through the front 180-degree arc. The
center window can he covered by an armored shutter, in which case the
driver views the terrain ahead through a periscope.
Entrance to the turret is by means of a main door on the right-hand side
or two roof hatches. There are four firing ports on the turret, two on
either side. I doubt that they are ever used in combat. They reduce the
rifleman's hit probability and increase the possibility of an accidental
discharge within the vehicle.
Some degree of NBC protection is provided, and the design permits
additional armor to be fitted as a shield against gamma and neutron
radiation. Because of its over-pressure system, personnel inside the
vehicle do not have to wear protective clothing. Blow-off doors at the
rear cover a storage compartment for emergency ammunition. In the event
of a pressure build-up, one of these doors will blow off. A fast
reacting, automatic fire extinguisher for both engine and crew
compartments (with nianual back-up) has a 12-millisecond flame detector
and uses halon gas for fire suppression. An air-conditioning unit with
NBC filters, directly to the rear of the turret, feeds air into the turret
from the outside.
A wedge-shaped box in front of the driver's compartment holds 16
projectiles and serves as brush-clearing device capable of cutting down
shrubs and small trees.
Overall length of the G6 is 33.8 feet with a total combat weight of
101,660 pounds (46 metric tons). Powered by an air-cooled diesel engine
developing 525 hp, the G6 has an automatic transmission with six forward
and two reverse gears and both automatic and manual gear selection.
Steering is power-assisted and the drive system is a permanent 6x6. The
engine and gearbox are mounted on a subframe and can be changed within two
hours. Independent suspension with torsion bars and a hydropneumatic
damping sustem helps reduce crew fatigue during extended combat operations.
Mounted on each side of the turret is a bank of four electronically
operated 8 1 mm grenade launchers that fire smoke grenades. Optional
auxiliary weapons include the Browning .50 caliber M2 HB heavy machine gun
(mounted to the left cupola on SADF G6s), Browning caliber 7.62x5 I mm
NATO machine gun or the GAI 20mm automatic cannon (a derivative of the
World War 11 Mauser MG- 15 1).
In the SADF, G6 Rhinos are deployed in batteries of eight, with three
batteries to a regiment. In Angola, the batteries were often split into
two troops of four each while shooting and scooting about in the
Battle-proven in Angola, the G5 and G6 Rhino currently stand supreme among
heavy ordnance. The G5 has also demonstrated its ability on the Iraqi
side of the front in their recent war with the Ayatollah. It will soon be
manufactured under license by Chile. Other nations will be hard-pressed
to match the performance level of the G5/G6 series anytime in the
foreseeable future. Military procurement agencies should contact
Lyttelton Engineering Works (Pty) Limited, Dept. SOF, Private Bag X5,
Verwoerdburg 0140, Republic of South Africa, for further information.
ACTION IN ANGOLA
On 17 August 1987, one battery of G5s of the South African Defence Force
became involved in combat for the first time during Operation Modular.
On that day the first Soviet T-54 tank was destroyed by a direct hit fired
by a 155mm gun at a range of 20,000 meters. It was to set the pattern for
what was to come. For the next eight months South African guns tore the
heart out of the FAPLA/Cuban forces in Angola and gave them a taste of
what hell was like.
But it was at the town of Cuito Cuanavale that the full effect of the G5s
South African artillery units were deployed with UNITA elements close to
the Cuito River. They had a good view of the town and the airport
"We had an aerial photo of the town with the exact locations of the HQ and
deployments - we even knew where the Cuban advisers lived," said one of
the gun commanders.
"Our task was to destroy three main elements in the town: one the HQ, two
the radar systems, and three any enemy aircraft on the ground.
"As a very low priority we could destroy enemy artillery systems, but for
that job another battery of G5s was deployed south of the Mianei River,"
"We went to work as ordered. We had a direct hit on the building we
believed housed the enemy HQ. Our intelligence boys later confirmed this.
We had hit the HQ of the political commissar and on that occasion killed
17 soldiers. Another time we killed 26 with a direct hit."
Yet it was the effect on morale that was most devastating to the FAPLA/
In an intercepted radio message back to the high command at Menongue, the
FAPLA commander at Cuito reported: "The enemy guns are giving me a
Later the South Affican guns did more than just give him a headache.
Intelligence sources claim he was killed during an artillery attack
shortly before Christmas.
There is no doubt the G5s proved devastating at Cuito. A good example was
on I November 1987, when a report confirmed the following losses caused by
artillery fire alone: four helicopters (two destroyed cast of the Cuzizi
River, and two at the Cuito Cuanavale airfield), two SAM-8 systems, six
enemy tanks, five BM-21 multiple rocket launchers, two air defense radar
systems, two MiG-21 fighter aircraft and one AN-12 transport aircraft
destroyed at the airfield at Cuito Cuanavale.
But it was not only at Cuito that the G5 saw service.
"To me one of the highlights was the attack on 59 Brigade," said an
artillery regimental commander.
"The important aspect was the enemy was as scared as hell of the guns at
that stage. In fact, they were so scared that I only used 650 rounds in
total to force 21 Brigade into withdrawing from their positions at the
junction of the Cuatirand Cuanavale rivers, forcing 25 Brigade to withdraw
to the Chambinga bridge and high ground and win the battle against 59
"I think our success against 16 Brigade, 21 Brigade, 47 Brigade and the
Tactical Group eventually made the enemy realize there was no way to
prevent a G5 projectile from reaching its target," he said.
"The POWs told us they were totally vulnerable and that we shot out or
neutralized every enemy gun or battery that tried to fire on us."
The mobile, self-propelled version of the G5, the G6, was deployed in
Angola largely as a high-speed, mobile artillery system. Its primary role
was that of long-range tank killer, where it would fire on specific enemy
tanks with devastating effect.
Just after dawn one morning in September 1987, FAPLA's elite 21 Brigade,
with support from Cuban sub-units and Cuban advisers, consolidated at the
Lomba River with the objective of launching an advance on the UNITA
stronghold at Mavinga.
A tactical group of 21 Brigade, consisting of a strengthened battalion of
infantry and a tank company, attempted to cross the Lomba River at a point
where the Cunzumbia and Gombe rivers flow into it. Using a Russian TMM
bridge, five tanks managed to cross to the south along with the infantry
sent to secure the area.
They were engaged by UNITA anti-tank units armed largely with 120mm
mortars and RPG-7 rockets, but the assistance of the South Africans was
"The observation post gave us a grid reference which indicated a range on
one of the tanks of some 35 kilometers," one of the G6 commanders
"We fired and a few seconds later heard a whoop over the radio from the
OP. We were spot on target, and the delighted OP reported a T-55 merrily
In the ensuing battle six Soviet T-54/ 55 tanks were destroyed (three
north and three south of the river) and an estimated 160 FAPLA and Cuban
FAPLA then called in an air strike, and several hours later an ineffective
high-level bombing run was carried out. Later in the afternoon four MiG-2
Is flew a sortie against UNITA forces, but by mistake FAPLA's 47 Brigade
sited to the west was hit. The Cuban pilots obviously feared the LJ.S.
Stinger missiles deployed by UNITA and consequently avoided more effective
low-level ground strikes.
Cuban advisers were subsequently withdrawn north of the Lomba River and
evacuated by helicopters. And 21 Brigade was forced to withdraw to a
position north of the river from where it fled to Cuito Cuanavale,
arriving badly mauled only in November.
ABOVE: South African G5 155mm towed gun as used in the indirect-fire role.
ABOVE: South African G6 Rhino 155mm 45 caliber SP gun in action.
RIGHT: G5 is equipped with a dial sight and direct-fire system mounted
just to the left of the breech, which is shown in the open position
immediately after a round has been fired.
ABOVE: South African G6 Rhino 155mm 45 caliber SP gun in action.
LEFT: Projectiles are placed by band on the G5s semiautomatic,
hydraulically operated, electronically controlled flick rammer.
BELOW: Emergency ammunition supply for the G6 Rhino is stored in a
compartment at the rear of the hull which is provided with blow-off doors.
One of the hydraulically controlled stabilizers on the G6 Rhino. In and
out of action times are an amazing 60 and 30 seconds, respectively.
Browning .50 caliber M2 HB machine gun, mounted to the G6 Rhino's left
cupola, is loaded with the standard ratio of four ball rounds to one
South African G6 Rhino 155mm 45 caliber SP gun in action.
SOURCE: Kokalis, Peter Death From A Distance Soldier of Fortune, Vol.
14 No. 8 August 1989. Pp. 30 - 33, 82 - 84. Photos Courtest Armscor.
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5th May 16:25
En mi humilde opinión.
No hay dudas de que el cubano es aguerrido y combativo cuando tiene que
serlo. Y es cierto que las tropas del genocida dictador, las ha usado como
carne de canion, donde jamas ningun presidente, o aun dictador de Cuba
hubiese pensado hacerlo...de dos decenas de paises extranjeros.
Es eso lo que uds. desean ver al payaso hacer con los soldados venezolanos ?
Servir de carne de canion para el ego y las infulas de "libertador de las
masas" que es el payaso de chavez ?
Pero aun con el corage y combatividad de los cubanos en Africa, Angola o
Etiopia y Mozambique, tuvieron miles de bajas. En Angola mas de 12,000.
Hace muchos años oí hablar de ello y vi una pelicula sobre el
tengo muy claro el asunto).
Ud. ignora totalmente el asunto este, pero para su informacion, los unicos
que combatian en Angola , Etiopia y varios otros paises fueron los cubanos,
los asesores y tecnicos rusos y sus cuerpos de inteligencia, los de el
regimen de Neto, MPLA de un lado y en su contra los Sudafricanos, los de
UNITA con Savimbi y elementos asesores chinos que iban en contra de los
rusos en Africa.Tal como paso en Somalia. De americanos o cia nada o muy
poco...a no ser la ayuda que le dieron a Savimbi en armas y dinero. ==================================================
invasión a Cuba.
Esa invasion o ataque, fue desde la presidencia de kennedy un craso y
manifiestamente un error mayusculo. Alli soo se enfrentaron 1,300 cubanos
armados con lo que pudieron desembarcar, y su corage.
Kennedy les jugo una mala pasada. al no decidir con toda determinacion si
apoyaba o no el desembarco con un techo aereo. Esto incluso se hizo por
ordees de Kennedy, por solo una o dos horas, pero incluso se equivocaron de
hora...Era pues logico que el desembarco fracasara de su inicio , al ser
anulado por las tropas de KaSstro el desembarco completo de hombres y
armas.Esto debido a que los invasores no tenian proteccion aerea
Ademas, el Plan de dicha Operacion fue completamente cambiado o transformado
del original que fue concebido durante la presidencia de Eisenhower,
militar de carrera.El Plan original no comtemplaba el desembarco en Giron,
lugar si bien aislado , pero con pocas posibilidades de proteccion y de
retirada a lugares mas seguros en la zona. Sino en el sur de l provincia
central de las Villas, por la zona de Trinidad y con la posibilidad de que
los invasores se internaran en las montanias proximas al dicho sito.Amen de
que ya desde el mismo principio de el regimen de KaSStro, en esa zona ,
montanias del Escambray, opeaban mas de dosmil alzados que heroicamente
luchaban casi sin armas y municiones contra las tropas de KaSStro. Lo cual
hubiese dado a los invasores un punto de apoyo inesimabel, al mismo tiempo
que reforzaba la
guerriila alzada con armas nuevas y mas pertrechos de guerras, superiores en
todo sentido a los que poseian esos heroes combatientes contra la dictadura
de KaSStro. ( ir a Google y buscar : " DIARIO DE UN ALZADO"
o TAMBIEN : " LA GUERRA OLVIDADA DEL ESCAMBRAY"
En todo esto queda solamente una conclusion :
Los 1300 cubanos que desembarcaron en Playa Giron se vieron en una dificil
situacion, pero lucharon denodadamente y con un valor extraordinario hasta
que se les acabaron la smuniciones...todo eso mientras a mas de 15
kilometros las baterias de caniones rusos, chinos de 122 milimitros y las
cuatro bocas checas vomitaban un caudaloso volumen de fuego, asi como los
tanques de Kasstro, los bombardeaban sin parar dia y noche.
Ahora diga si 1300 hombres sin casi armamento y municiones, pueden lograr
vencer a decenas de miles de hombres con todo el arsenal a su
Demas esta que le diga que alli murieron cubanos de ambas partes y que
incluso hasta algunos de ellos eran familias ...hermano contra hermano,
primo contra primo, amigo contra amigo...
Todo por la megalomania y bestial crueldad de un hijo de puta llamado fidel kaSStro.
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