29th April 18:14
Can broccoli sprouts, cabbage,ginko biloba and garlic prevent cancer? Apparently, yes (cancer gastritis diet peptic ulcer nail)
"Can broccoli sprouts, cabbage,ginko biloba and garlic prevent cancer?
Apparently, yes", Medical News Today, November 4, 2005,
In the high-tech 21st century, the most rudimentary natural products
continue to reveal exciting ant-cancer properties to scientists,
offering people relatively simple ways to help protect themselves from
Five studies presented today during the American Association for Cancer
Research's 4th annual Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meeting
in Baltimore, Md., add to the arsenal of research that shows adding
certain vegetables and herbs to the diet can prevent or, in some cases,
halt the growth of cancer. v Moreover, it is not just a matter of
mechanical prevention, such as adding fiber to the diet to maintain
digestive health. This research deals with the chemical interactions
between compounds found in foods and the body's cells and DNA, and it
shows that the addition of these foods to the diet can reap benefits at
any stage of life.
Broccoli Sprouts Relieve Gastritis in H. pylori Patients; May Help
Prevent Gastric Cancer (Abstract #3442)
Broccoli sprouts may not be a culinary favorite for some, but their
chemical properties are becoming increasingly popular among those
interested in preventing cancer.
In the latest series of studies, a team from Japan has found that a
diet rich in broccoli sprouts significantly reduced Helicobacteri
pylori (H. pylori) infection among a group of 20 individuals. H. pylori
is known to cause gastritis and is believed to be a major factor in
peptic ulcer and stomach cancer.
"Even though we were unable to eradicate H. pylori, to be able suppress
it and relieve the accompanying gastritis by means as simple as eating
more broccoli sprouts is good news for the many people who are
infected," said Akinori Yanaka from the University of Tsukuba, Japan,
lead investigator of the study.
Scientists are focusing on the anti-cancer properties of a chemical
derived from broccoli sprouts called sulforaphane. Among other things,
this chemical has the ability to help cells defend against oxidants,
the highly reactive and toxic molecules that damage DNA and kill cells,
leading potentially to cancer. Previously, researchers working with H.
pylori discovered that sulforaphane acts against the bacterium in
vitro, alleviating gastritis in H. pylori-infected mice through its
None of these findings had been tested in people, however, until the
Yanaka-led team added broccoli sprouts (the plant at its youngest and
most sulforaphane-rich, just two or three days old) to the diet of 20
individuals infected with H. pylori. Another group of 20 infected with
the bacterium received alfalfa spouts instead of broccoli sprouts. Each
received 100 grams of fresh sprouts daily for two months.
"We wanted to test alfalfa spouts together with broccoli sprouts,"
Yanaka explained, "because the chemical constituents of the two plants
are almost identical."
However, the way in which they differ is significant. Broccoli sprouts
contain 250 milligrams of sulforaphane glucosinolate per 100 grams per
serving, whereas alfalfa sprouts contain neither sulforaphane nor
Glucosinolates occur in cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli and
cabbage, and are broken down enzymatically into sulforaphane and a
variety of other, biologically active compounds when damage occurs to
the plant--that is, by cutting or chewing it.
The presence of H. pylori was assessed by performing urea breath tests
and evaluating H. pylori-specific stool antigen. The degree of
gastritis was evaluated by measuring the level of pepsinogen in the
blood. Pepsinogen is also an indicator of gastric atrophy. These tests
were performed just before adding broccoli and alfalfa sprouts to the
diet, and at one and two months after starting the dietary regimen.
Following two months' consumption of 100 grams of broccoli sprouts per
day, patients showed significantly less H. pylori and markedly
decreased pepsinogen. Alfalfa sprouts had no effect, and the broccoli
failed to eliminate H. pylori completely. Two months after eliminating
broccoli sprouts from the diet, H. pylori and pepsinogen returned to
pre-test levels in the subjects.
"The data suggest strongly that a diet rich in sulforaphane
glucosinolate may help protect against gastric cancer, presumably by
activating gastric mucosal anti-oxidant enzymes that can protect the
cells from H. pylori-induced DNA damage," Yanaka concluded.
Broccoli Sprout-extract Protects Against Skin Cancer from UV Light in
High-risk Mice (Abstract #2597)
Eat it or wear it? That is the question.
If you ask Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Ph.D., of Johns Hopkins
University in Baltimore, she will likely answer "both."
In the laboratory of Paul Talalay, M.D., who first reported the
indirect antioxidant properties of sulforaphane, the compound derived
from cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, Dinkova-Kostova and her
colleagues applied broccoli sprout extract to the skin of hairless
mice, and found it counteracted the carcinogenic response to
ultraviolet light exposure.
Mice from a strain characterized by post-weaning hair loss were exposed
to a dose of UV light comparable to what a person would get sunbathing
at the beach on a clear day, twice a week for 20 weeks. After
irradiation, broccoli sprout extracts containing either a low or high
dose of sulforaphane were applied to the backs of the mice, five days a
week for 11 weeks. Acetone (known commonly as the ingredient in nail
polish remover) was used as the vehicle for delivering the
sulforaphane, and it alone was applied on the control group. At the
conclusion of the study period, 100 percent of the control mice had
developed cancerous skin tumors.
The incidence and number of tumors was reduced by half, however, in the
mice receiving the high dose of broccoli sprout extract. The rate of
tumor reduction was less among the low-dose recipients, but even in
their case, some benefit was observed.
"We weren't looking for a sunscreen effect," Dinkova-Kostova is quick
to point out. "The sulforaphane-containing extract was applied after
the period of regular exposure to ultra-violet light. That's more
relevant, since most people receive some sun damage to their skin in
childhood, particularly adults who grew up before effective sunscreen
lotions were developed."
Previous research has shown that sulforaphane boosts protective and
detoxifying reactions in cells, inactivating carcinogens and reactive
oxygen intermediates that contribute to the disease by damaging DNA. As
in other studies involving the anti-cancer potential of sulforaphane,
Dinkova-Kostova's group notes that broccoli sprouts contain much more
of the compound than adult broccoli.
"Our findings suggest a promising strategy for skin cancer prevention
after exposure to UV light," Dinkova-Kostova said.
Change in Diet at Any Age May Help Protect Against Breast Cancer
Many find it to be the perfect companion to hot dogs and sausage, but
new studies suggest that sauerkraut may have another beneficial side
effect-it may protect women from breast cancer.
Results from the U.S. component of the Polish Women's Health Study are
showing an association between cabbage and sauerkraut consumption, and
a constituent called glucosinolate, and a lower risk of breast cancer.
The influence seemed to be highest among women who consumed high
amounts beginning in adolescence and throughout adulthood.
"The observed pattern of risk reduction indicates that the breakdown
products of glucosinolates in cabbage may affect both the initiation
phase of carcinogenesis--by decreasing the amount of DNA damage and
cell mutation--and the promotion phase--by blocking the processes that
inhibit programmed cell death and stimulate unregulated cell growth,"
said Dorothy Rybaczyk- Pathak, Ph.D., from the University of New
Pathak, along with colleagues from Michigan State University and the
National Food and Nutrition Institute of Warsaw, Poland, evaluated the
diet of Polish immigrants to the United States, living in Chicago and
surrounding Cook County, Ill., and the Detroit, Mich., metropolitan
area. Women with higher rates of raw- or short-cooked cabbage and
sauerkraut consumption, three or more servings per week, compared to
those who consumed less than one serving a week, had a significantly
reduced breast cancer risk.
Like broccoli, cabbage is a cruciferous vegetable--its flowers are in
the shape of a cross--and a member of the Brassica family, which
includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, collard greens and
cauliflower. These plants contain glucosinolates and the enzyme
myrosinase which, when broken down by chewing or cutting, release
several biologically active products which previous studies have shown
to possess anti-carcinogenic properties.
Pathak began the study by wondering why the breast cancer risk of
Polish women rose three-fold after they immigrated to the United
States. She hypothesized that dietary changes were among the
environmental factors contributing to this rapid increase in risk. In
Poland, where abundance of food is a recent phenomenon, women
traditionally eat an average of 30 pounds of cabbage and sauerkraut per
year, as opposed to just 10 pounds per year among American women.
Moreover, Polish women traditionally eat more raw cabbage and
sauerkraut, in salads, or short-cooked, as a side dish.
She observed the lowest rate of breast cancer among women who consumed
high amounts of raw- or short-cooked cabbage during adolescence, but
found that high consumption during adulthood provided a significant
protective effect for women who had eaten smaller quantities of this
vegetable during adolescence. Cabbage cooked a long time, such as in
hunter's stew, cabbage rolls and pierogi, had no bearing on breast
Possible Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer by the Herbal, Ginkgo Biloba
Researchers in Boston, led by Drs. Bin Ye and Daniel Cramer of Brigham
and Women's Hospital, have developed new laboratory and epidemiological
evidence that demonstrates, for the first time, that ginkgo biloba
appears to lower the risk of developing ovarian cancer.
In a population-based study which involved more than 600 ovarian cancer
cases and 640 healthy, matched controls, women who took ginkgo
supplements for six months or longer were shown to have a 60 percent
lower risk for ovarian cancer.
Ye and his colleagues found that ginkgo, echinacea, St. John's Wort,
ginseng, and chondroitin were the most commonly used herbals among
study participants. A further ****ysis of the data showed that ginkgo
was the only herb linked to ovarian cancer prevention. The preventive
effect was more pronounced in women with non-muncious ovarian cancers,
with data showing that ginkgo may reduce the risk of this type of
ovarian cancer by 65-70 percent. "Among the mixture of ginkgo
chemicals," said Ye, "we found laboratory evidence that ginkgolide A
and B--terpene compounds--are the most active components contributing
to this protective effect."
Ye's team, which included scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
at Harvard Medical School, Boston University and Linden Bioscience,
next took the evidence demonstrated by their population studies to the
laboratory. In vitro experiments showed that a low dosage of ginkgolide
caused ovarian cancer cells to stop growing. They observed significant
cell cycle blockage in non-mucinous ovarian cancer cells. Ginkgolides
appeared to be less effective against the mucinous type of ovarian
"While the detailed mechanism of ginkgo action on ovarian cancer cells
is not yet well understood," Ye explained, "from the existing
literature it most likely that ginkgo and ginkgolides are involved in
anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenesis processes via many extra- and
intra-cellular signal pathways. In the future, these findings could
potentially offer a new strategy for ovarian cancer prevention and
therapy, using the active forms of ginkgolides."
Ovarian cancer is the most deadly of all gynecological cancers. It is
called a "silent killer" because most cases are discovered only in very
Changing Genes: Garlic Shown to Inhibit DNA Damaging Chemical in Breast
Cancer (Abstract #2543)
Legend suggests that garlic may ward off evil spirits, such as
vampires. Now scientists are finding that garlic, or a flavor component
of pungent herb, may help ward off carcinogens produced by meat cooked
at high temperatures.
Cooking protein-rich foods like meats and eggs at high temperatures
releases a chemical called PhIP, a suspected carcinogen.
Epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of breast cancer
is higher among women who eat large quantities of meat, although fat
and caloric intake and hormone exposure may contribute to this
Diallyl sulfide (DAS), a flavor component of garlic, has been shown to
inhibit the effects of PhIP that, when biologically active, can cause
DNA damage or transform substances in the body into carcinogens.
Ronald D. Thomas, Ph.D., and a team of researchers at Florida A&M
University in Tallahassee hypothesized that PhIP enhances the
metabolism of the enzymes linked to carcinogenesis. They further
suggested that the diallyl sulfide derived from garlic might counter
"We treated human breast epithelial cells with equal amounts of PhIP
and DAS separately, and the two together, for periods ranging from
three to 24 hours," said Thomas. "PhIP induced expression of the
cancer-causing enzyme at every stage, up to 40-fold, while DAS
completely inhibited the PhIP enzyme from becoming carcinogenic."
The finding demonstrates for the first time that DAS triggers a gene
alteration in PhIP that may play a significant role in preventing
cancer, notably breast cancer, induced by PhIP in well-done meats.
Thomas noted that no studies have shown a link between cooking
vegetables and fruits and PhIP, regardless of the method used.
Founded in 1907, the American Association for Cancer Research is a
professional society of more than 24,000 laboratory, translational, and
clinical scientists engaged in all areas of cancer research in the
United States and in more than 60 other countries. AACR's mission is to
accelerate the prevention and cure of cancer through research,
education, communication, and advocacy. Its principal activities
include the publication of five major peer-reviewed scientific
journals: Cancer Research; Clinical Cancer Research; Molecular Cancer
The****utics; Molecular Cancer Research; and Cancer Epidemiology,
Biomarkers & Prevention. AACR's Annual Meetings attract nearly 16,000
participants who share new and significant discoveries in the cancer
field. Specialty meetings, held throughout the year, focus on the
latest developments in all areas of cancer research.
Daily Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprouts Improves Gastritis
in H.pylori-Infected Human Subjects Abstract # 3442, Akinori Yanaka,
University of Tsukuba, Japan. Poster Session C. 7:30 a.m., Wednesday,
November 2, 2005. Sulforaphane-Containing Broccoli Sprout Extracts
Protect against UV-Light-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in SKH-1 High-Risk
Mice Abstract # 2597, Albena Dinkova-Kostova, Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, Md. Poster Session A. 5:30 p.m., Monday, October 31, 2005.
Joint Association of High Cabbage/Sauerkraut Intake at 12-13 Years of
Age and Adulthood with Reduced Breast Cancer Risk in Polish Migrant
Women: Results from the US Component of the Polish Women's Health Study
(PWHS) Abstract # 3697, Dorothy Rybaczyk-Pathak, University of New
Mexico, Albuquerque. Poster Session C. 7:30 a.m., Wednesday, November
Ginkgo Biloba and Ginkgolides as Potential Agents for Ovarian Cancer
Prevention Abstract # 3654, Bin Ye, Brigham and Women's Hospital,
Boston, Mass. Poster Session A. 5:30 p.m., Monday, October 31, 2005.
Diallyl Sulfide Antagonizes PhIP Induced Alterations in the Expression
of Phase I and Phase II Metabolizing Enzymes in Human Breast Epithelial
Cells Abstract # 2543, Ronald Thomas, Florida A&M University,
Tallahassee. Poster Session A. 5:30 p.m., Monday, October 31, 2005.
American Association for Cancer Research