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1 9th September 21:52
jettas mom
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Posts: 1
Default Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


I have a 4-year old female, standard, smooth black and tan Dachshund.
She was purchased from a reputable breeder (AKC certified) who has
since passed away. About 6 months ago she developed severe problems
and we cannot find help for her despite having taken her to numerous
vets (standard and holistic). Her problems include: little,
pus-filled bumps all over her body; severe itchiness especially in hind
quarters and paws; chronic ear infections that go away and then return;
raw, itchy paws (which she licks constantly); regular bouts of
diarrhea; bladder/uti infections. This animal is suffering and we have
tried every conceivable treatment from sterioids and antibiotics (which
work for a short time, and then the problems continue) to holistic
remedies. We have changed her diet 4 or 5 times- hoping to isolate a
food allergen- to no avail. The dog has now lost most of her hair (as
the pimples scab over, her fur falls out), has two infected ears, has
diarrhea and is constantly itchy. The only saving grace is that she
continues to have a strong appetite (she's a dachsie, after all!) and
her energy level and personality are normal. I am literally at wits
end and was hoping that someone - ANYONE - has insight into this
situation. Is this something that is known to plague dachshunds? Has
anyone had similar problems with their dachsie? Any help will be
greatly appreciated!
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2 9th September 21:54
buglady
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Posts: 1
Default Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


...........did anyone ever give you a diagnosis? Did they ever do skin
scrapings, fungal cultures, skin biopsies? What exactly did they do? Did
you ever have any thyroid levels run? Anything happen in your house 6
months ago - new carpet, moved, etc.?

and then the problems continue) to holistic


............elimination diets must be kept for 90 days to see if they're
doing any good. Were these commercial preparations you used? I suggest
finding someone who can help you design a home prepared diet to limit the
ingredients.

buglady
take out the dog before replying
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3 10th September 03:30
carlshead
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Posts: 1
Default Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


I live in Houston, Texas and my male dachsie had skin infection problems for
about two years (age 1 to 3). He is a standard red/brown male. His skin
infection problems would start like a pimple, progress to scaly red, get
infected with hair falling out all around for about a 1/2". Our vet sent
skin scrapings to local labs and to the Texas A&M vet school. The mix of
bacteria causing the infections could not be traced to any one source.
Houston is sub-tropical, all kinds of things were growing in my back yard
plus the unknowns when going for a walk. I had the same treatment options
with steroids and antibiotics over two years. Every time the drugs would
clear it up, but after a couple of months it would come back. The various
lesions were never over about six at a time, Butch never did much more than
give them a few random licks so it really did not seem to bother him. We
changed his diet to a venison and potatoe vet food and very low daily
dosages of Bendryl ( 3 mg a day for a 22 lb dog). The only problems with
his ears were caused if I skipped a weekly cleaning and a yeast infection
might appear (very humid in Houston).

At about age 5 the skin lesions went away. I moved and had trouble finding
the same brand of venison and potatoe food and swtichted to an IAMS.
Butchie is 9 now and other than the $7,000 for three ruptured disc
surgeries, he is very healthy. Gulf Coast Veterinary Hospital has the money
I would have spent on a large screen LCD TV. But large screen TV's do not
give kisses and play catch/tug-of-war with you.

Don't let your dachsie jump! Ever!
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4 10th September 03:30
robdar
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Posts: 1
Default Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


While Dashies are somewhat known to have allergies...this does not sound
like the typical allergy situation.
Dietary allergies, usually to grains, would have been my first guess but it
sounds like that has already been considered.
Have you tried an all raw diet?
surely he has been checked for mites and mange etc etc.

We had a Beagle in our rescue that has simliar issues. Working with his
adoptive family we tried all the normal things, just as you have done.
Changed his diet, gave him every manner of anti biotic and steriod. The
problems would subside for awhile then return. Having the utmost confidence
in our vet, we brought him back here and took him to our vet. After a month
of being here and treated by our vet, he was the best he had ever been.
Seemed all healed. He went home...in less than two weeks he was right back
to the same issue. He wasnt sick when we adopted him....and came back here
and got better...went home and got worse again...our vet was sure it was
some sort of environmental allergy. We spent months going through the
adoptive families house trying to figure out what was so different about
their house...we made charts and graphs...what was different about this food
from that food...what was in their house that was not in ours....what
bedding did they use...what brand laundry soap did they wash his bedding
in....how was it different from what we used etc etc etc
turns out...
the dog was allergic to the Swiffer products his mom used to clean!
The moral is...when you have exhausted all likely possibilities...get
scientific! Here what we did....
Made a list of all the things the dog came in contact with...from cleaning
supplies and yard chemicals (we also had a dog allergic to the Tru Green
Chem Lawn treatments) all the way down to its food...and eliminated one
thing at a time till we found it.
good luck!
wish I could be more help!
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5 10th September 03:34
animalbehaviorforensicsciencesresearchlaboratory@hushmailcom
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Posts: 1
Default Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


HOWEDY jetta's mom,

Your dog, like MOST of the dog lover's dogs on these forums,
is DYIN from STRESS INDUCED AUTO-IMMUNE DISEASE, aka The
Puppy Wizard's Syndrome <{): ~ ( >

There's ONLY three CURES for STRESS INDUCED AUTO-IMMUNE DISEASE. Here's WON:
<{#}: ~ } >8< { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > http://www.tinyurl.com/7bl5u < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } >8< { ~ :{@}>

A compromised auto immune system and garbage commercial
dog food is HOWE COME dogs GET "allergies" and chronic
yeast ear infections and those "bumps" all over.


You can E***TINGUISH her incessant scratching by using
NON PHYSICAL PRAISE for five to fif**** seconds and brief
alternately variable distraction and praise if ONLY PRAISE
fails to interrupt the scratching:

From: Paul B (a...@clear.net.nz)

Subject: Re: dog chewing he paw raw.
Date: 2004-01-01 22:19:01 PST

Both my dogs at some stage have licked a spot somewhere on
their bodies and I have always managed to train them to stop.
In all cases there was nothing wrong that licking would have
helped (Roz has had cut pads, stitches in her belly and skin
irritations, all tempting her to lick), none of their licking
has been due to any allergies. When I see the dog licking more
than normal I look at the spot to see whats there and decide
if a vet appointment is needed or to wait and see, keeping a
close eye.

To stop the licking I distract the dog and give it
some friendly banter, when it starts licking again I repeat,
usually after about 4 times the dog stops, for the moment at
least, if it starts again then repeat, before long the dog has
no more desire to lick that spot at all.

Paul

From: Hennie van Dalen Hennie van Dalen
http://www.chello.nl/~h.vandalen11

The same thing worked with my lab licking/chewing problem too.
He had an itch due to blocked **** glands and started chewing
and licking his tail at the root.

After the glands were squeezed, and the itch was gone he still
wouldn't stop. (because the place he chewed raw was itching)
After some training (roughly the same methode as yours) he
stopped.
--
Hennie van Dalen http://www.chello.nl/~h.vandalen11 http://www.chello.nl/~h.vandalen11/fotografie/doggy-pictures/ (h.vandalen11***removethis...@chello.nl)
"The Puppy Wizard" <ThePuppyWiz...@earthlink.net> schreef inbericht newsLpzb.2640$Qd6.1560@newsread1.news.atl.earthl ink.net...

My dog (a 1 year old Yellow Lab) was biting his tail
at the root (Vet said his **** gland was blocked, and
was causing an itch).

After squeezing it, he still wouldn't stop biting his
tail. The vet advised a neck-funnel (don't know wat
you US-guy's call those) so he couldn't reach his butt.

I hate those things, i think they will drive a dog nuts.

I tried the wits end method. (difficult to read such a long
textfile if English is not your native language) Luckily this
is without all the "HOWE's" etc.so at least it's readable for
somebody like me.

The minute he started to bite i trew my key's
next to him on the floor, and praised him (he
stopped biting and looked up when he heard
the sound) I did this 7 times,

after that the tailbiting completely stopped.
Just give the wits end method a try.

One of the possible downloadlocations
is http://www.doggydoright.com/id3.html

Hennie van Dalen
http://www.chello.nl/~h.vandalen11 ===============
"Hennie van Dalen" <h.vandalen11***removethis...@chello.nl>
wrote in message news:TlsCb.2895$7U1.7896@amstwist00...

RTFM is age-old computer lingo.... It stands for "Read The
F***ing Manual" ;-) I used the manual and it works very good!

But it is a long text to read (76 pages printed on A4-size
paper) My lab is 1year old now, and teaching him something
new takes about 30minutes (depending on what to teach
offcourse)

My other dog (a 7year old staffordshire terrier-mix) is a bit
slower in learning, but he is used to me calling him a "bad
dog"whenever he did something i didn't want him to do, or
it might be the age.

Sometimes it looks like Sam (the lab) WANTS to learn
something new: he wants me to bring along the can
filled with washers whenever we go for a walk. It is a
very "humane" way of teaching: the dog is allways a
"good dog", and never a "bad dog"

There is nu punishment or prong-collars involved.

For a fact i tought him to heel in 15min's without
beeing on a leach at-all !!! When he spotted a dog,
he used to run towards it, but now i tought him to "ask
permission" first, and to my surprise it worked!

My dogs never went to puppy-training (lucky for them),
maybe this helped too.

Manual can be found at http://www.doggydoright.com/id3.html

-- Hennie van Dalen http://www.chello.nl/~h.vandalen11
http://www.chello.nl/~h.vandalen11/fotografie/doggy-pictures/ =================

You mean she's OBSESSED with FOOD. That's PART
of her auto immune DIS-EASE. You can study up
on an "elimination diet" and try eliminating possible food allergens.


You mean she's a little HYPERACTIVE... that's part
of The Puppy Wizard's Syndrome <{): ~ ) >


INDEEDY. WELCOME to The Amazing Puppy Wizard's
100% CONSISTENTLY NEARLY INSTANTLY SUCCESSFUL
FREE WWW Wits' End Dog Training Method Forums.
I'm Jerry Howe, The Amazing Puppy Wizard <{); ~ ) >

MOST of the DOG LOVER'S here abHOWETS GOT THE SAME PROBLEM.


No. It's common to dogs that are OBEDIENCE TRAINED
BRIBED SCOLDED CRATED SPRAYED WITH AVERSIVES and SHOCKED.


Yeah. As time goes on these dogs get ruptured ligaments
in their legs, spondylosis, degenerative neuro mylopathies,
Cushings Addison's and Wilson's Syndromes, periodontal
DIS-EASE, paralysis, cataracts, blindness, cancers, and
the list goes on ad nauseaum.


You AIN'T gonna be gettin no doGgamend HEELP from
these lying dog abusing mental cases or they'd of
CURED their own DEATHLY ILL and DYING dogs years ago.

The following is pertinent to your dog's condition:

Subject: Re: Ureter Calculi and removal

HOWEDY Mike, Mike S. wrote:

There's a lotta that goin arHOWEND.


Besides THAT, your vet don't know HOWE COME critters
GET this STRESS INDUCED AUTO-IMMUNE DIS-EASE in the first place.


You mean he got STRESS INDUCED AUTO-IMMUNE DIS-EASE.


Amitriptyline is an ANTI-PSYCHOTIC psychotropic pharmacutical.


It SEZ your kat got a DEADLY STRESS INDUCED AUTO-IMMUNE
DIS-EASE aka The Puppy Wizard's SYNDROME <{): ~ ( >


Not withHOWET likely causing other side effects...


Perhaps that's a BLESSING in disguise.

Here's HOWE professor "SCRUFF SHAKE and SCREAM 'NO!'
into ITS face for 5 seconds and lock IT in a box for
ten minutes contemplation" dermer cured his little
dog Maxie The Magnificent FuriHOWEsly Obsessive
Compulsive Masturbator's Disassociative Behavior OCD
DIS-EASE and his STRESS INDUCED AUTO-IMMUNE urinary
tract / bladder / irritable BHOWEL DIS-EASE, aka The
Puppy Wizard's SYNDROME:

(der...@alpha1.csd.uwm.edu)
Subject: Re: Struvite Crystals
Date: 2003-07-15 11:33:42 PST
In article <20030715070853.03159.00000...@mb-m12.aol.com> ebt...@aol.com13 (Ebthtr) writes:


I have a male dog who had calcium oxalate crystals
and muliple bladder infections. I can't say I have a
cure for the bladder infections, but one issue is how
the bacteria are introduced into his bladder.

My vet asked me if our dog cleaned his genitals and
the answer was no.

So, last January I started washing my dog's genital
area with a wiper and some aloe gel (an antibiotic)
DAILY.

So far he has not had a bladder infection but the
interval between infections was about 9 months.

We'll just have to wait and see what happens.

You could try cleaning your dog daily as suggested above.

==================================

BWEEEEEEEEAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAA!!!

From: ThePetAlchem...@FastMail.FM
Date: 16 Jul 2005 10:52:44 -0700

The Puppy Wizard's
FREE
TEN STEP DIAGNOSTIC / REHABILITATION PROGRAM


HOWEDY professor SCRUFF SHAKE and SCREAM 'NO!'
into ITS face and lock IT in a box for ten minutes
reflection," dermer

Re: Max--Vomiting, Lethargy, Discomfort, Fever -
The Puppy Wizard's FREE TEN STEP DIAGNOSTIC /
REHABILITATION PROGRAM

"Marshall Dermer" wrote in message


The Puppy Wizard believes your dog's health problems
are the physical manifestation of emotional distress.


Ever consider it's your dysfunctional method of intimidating,
punishing, forcing control, and mishandling him thru your
preferred lunacy of duminance, intimidation, forced restraint,
and your SCRUFF SHAKE???

Your dog Maxie The Magnificent Masturbator has OCMD
(obsessive compulsive masturbatory disorder), a dissasociative
anxiety relief mechanism. It's his ONLY defense mechanism,
bein as small as he is. The Puppy Wizard's GIANT breed dogs
would simply SCRUFF SHAKE YOU, and BE DONE with their
ANXIETY, as YOU DO HIM.


INDEED. Bribing and withholding treats increases
anxiety, which is restimulated every time the
"command" he's been "taught" using withholding of
bribes is requested, even many years into the future.

Your little dog Maxie The Magnificent Masturbator has his DAILY
ATTACKS of ANXIETY on any day you fail to expiate his ANXIETY
thru five miles of bicycle chasing.

IS THAT NOT SO, professor SCRUFF SHAKE?


S-HOWENDS like the same same same same symptoms
CHILDREN manifest, who DON'T WANT TO GO TO SCHOOL


HOWE HIGH is his fever? The Puppy Wizard KNOWS physical
symptoms such as "idiopathic epilepsy" seizures, "undiagnosed"
intestinal and digestive disorders, ALL OCD behaviors, endocrine
malfunctions, and other PSYCHOSOMATIC disorders can and
usually are, CAUSED BY STRESS.


NORMAL temps are 101.5 - 102. THAT SUGGESTS to The
Puppy Wizard that Maxie The Magnificent Masturbator's
"FEVER" is PSYCHOSOMATIC, a result of non physical
STRESS, as in the "Spike & Squirt" phenomena described in McProtection Training.


Like HOWE a kid who's trying to get HOWET of goin to school today...


Like HOWE a kid who's SUCCEEDED at gettin HOWETA school today.


Like HOWE a kid who's SATISFIED at having got HOWETA school YESTERDAY.

These symptoms are COMMON, professor. The Puppy Wizard has
SEEN EVIDENCE in the DEAD DOGS who've HAD NO SYMPTOMS
while boarded at The Puppy Wizard's kennels PRYOR to being
MISDIAGNOSED by "THE BEST" VETERINARY SPECIALISTS.

SAME SAME as HOWER friend melanie chang has SEEN with her
dog Solo, while she was on vacation and Solo had the BLISS of a NORMAL kennel ENVIRONMENT.

KERCHING! KERCHING! KERCHING!


Well, it IS fortunate for the VET that you're able to afford such
luxury on a professor's salary.


Well, as time endures and you continue to MISHANDLE him, the
physical symptoms will likely continue to exacerbate, PROFESSOR.
You'll get your "medical" findings, bye and bye, no dHOWEt.

The CONSTANT intermittent STRESS CAUSED BY MISHANDLING
will break dHOWEn ANY organism.


KERCHING! KERCHING! KERCHING!


PERHAPS your vet "KNOWS" sumpthin The Puppy Wizard KNOWS, professor?

PRECISELY. You cannot expect ANYTHING to override the
constant restimulation of STRESS produced by INTIMIDATION.

KERCHING! KERCHING! KERCHING!


These and other OCD related behaviors can be duplicated EZ, professor.


DO YOU NHOWE?


KERCHING! KERCHING! KERCHING!

A WIZE idea, professor.


KERCHING! KERCHING! KERCHING!


INDEED, professor SCRUFF SHAKE and SCREAM 'NO!' into
ITS face and lock IT in a box for ten minutes reflection," dermer.

First and ONLY WON question is, DO YOU CRATE Maxie The
Magnificent Masturbator? That could be the primary cause of
his STRESS, as at the age of 5 years, he's unlikely to have
any behavior problems which you have not SCRUFF SHAKEN
HOWETA HIM.

Crating RESTIMULATES and REINFORCES phobias, professor.
You'll see EVIDENCE of THAT in Crystal Arcidy's reports on her
FREE WWW Wits' End Trained dog Starr. See "Starry's Scary
Night."

The Puppy Wizard has a recommendation and an option which
MIGHT resolve ALL HOWER problems, professor. The reason
the suggestion is modified by MIGHT is, on accHOWEnt of The
Puppy Wizard cannot control the environment if HE'S not there
to SUPERVISE implementation of the TECHNIQUES HE offers
you today.

Here's HOWE to CURE Maxie's OCD behavior's and life threatening
physical health dilemmas:

First, STUDY your FREE copy of The Puppy Wizard's FREE WWW
Wits' End Dog Training Method Manual.

Second, CALL The Puppy Wizard with all members of Maxie's
immediate family so we're ALL on the same page and NOBODY
will CONFLICT with or STRESS him in ANY WAY.

Third, STOP all BRIBES, CORRECTIONS, INTIMIDATION, CRATING,
and discontinue excessive physical exercise to expiate his
anxiety. We WANT his behavior problems to manifest SO WE CAN
EXTINGUISH THEM.

Fourth, The Puppy Wizard will LOAN you for FREE, HIS "AMAZING,
MIRACULHOWES, INCREDIBLE" MAGNIFICENT Doggy Do Right
(And Kitty Will And A Rooster Did And A ****atoo Or Two Did Too)
Machine, and YOU will AGREE to FOLLOW HIS INSTRUCTIONS.

Fifth, you or any family member will call The Puppy Wizard IMMEDIATELY
and relate details and ask advice for appupriately
controlling EACH and EVERY instance of Maxie The Magnificent
Masturbator's inappropriate puppy behavior problems, instead of
tellin him "NO!" or otherWIZE negatively interacting with him.

Sixth, you and each member of your immediate family pack will work five

minutes every other day learning HOWE to expiate your
dog Maxie The Magnificent Masturbator's anxiety thru the MAGICK of The
Puppy Wizard's Four Step Heeling Pattern Exercise as
articulated in your FREE copy of The Puppy Wizard's FREE WWW
Wits' End Dog Training Method Manual, to TEACH Maxie there is
NOTHING TO FEAR in MAKING MISTAKES.

Seventh, at the end of thirty days, you will report HOWER findings to
your veterinary, the head of your university
department of ****-ytic behaviorISM, and to the Whole Wild
World...

Eighth, IN RETURN, you will have your dog Maxie The FORMER
Magnificent Masturbator returned to EXCELLENT health, and The
Puppy Wizard agrees to F****VE and FORGET ALL PAST
INDISCRETIONS and SUBVERSIVE activities you've committed against The
Puppy Wizard and all mankind...

Ninth, you will serve as EMISSARY and sever as EXPERT WITNESS for The
Puppy Wizard and ENDORSE HIS METHODS and MACHINE as the
WON true way to CURE ALL animal and child behavior problems and
bring PEACE, HEALTH, and PROSPERITY to the Whole Wild World.

Tenth, IF YOU FAIL to succeed after your thirty day EXPERIMENT,
you'll agree to ship Maxie The Magnificent Masturbator TO The Puppy
Wizard at HIS EXPENSE, for a two week stay FOR FREE, to
PERFORM THE MAGICK HISSELF.


It don't get no goddamned better than THAT, professor.

Thank you,
Jerry Howe,
Director of Research,
Animal Behavior Forensic
Sciences Research Laboratory,
BIOSOUND Scientific
Director of Training,
Wits' End Dog Training
1611 24th St
Orlando, FL 32805
Phone: 1-407-425-5092

<{#}: ~ } >8< { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > http://www.tinyurl.com/7bl5u < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } >8< { ~ :{@}>


The Amazing Puppy Wizard. <{}; ~ ) >
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6 10th September 03:35
animalbehaviorforensicsciencesresearchlaboratory@hushmailcom
External User
 
Posts: 1
Default Behavioral Dermatology: Acral Lick Dermatitis Psychogenic Alopecia Hyperesthesia & Related Conditions Vint Virga DVM Dipl. ACVB Behavioral Medicine for Animals Re: Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


Behavioral Dermatology:
Acral Lick Dermatitis, Psychogenic Alopecia,
Hyperesthesia, & Related Conditions
Vint Virga, DVM,
Dipl. ACVB Behavioral Medicine for Animals
SM Veterinary Healing Arts, Inc.
New York / Newport

HOWEDY People,

Here's The Puppy Wizard's Syndrome. CAVEAT: The Amazing Puppy
Wizard DOES NOT CONDONE or ENDORSE the good Doctor's METHODS
for treating STRESS INDUCED AUTO-IMMUNE DIS-EASE aka The Puppy
Wizard's Syndrome. He's ONLY a veterinarian and there's ONLY THREE
CURES for it and HE AIN'T GOT 'em.

Here's WON of 'em:

<{#}: ~ } >8< { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > http://www.tinyurl.com/7bl5u < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } > < { ~ :{@}>
<{#}: ~ } >8< { ~ :{@}>


Behavioral Dermatology:
Acral Lick Dermatitis, Psychogenic Alopecia,
Hyperesthesia, & Related Conditions
Vint Virga, DVM,
Dipl. ACVB Behavioral Medicine for Animals
SM Veterinary Healing Arts, Inc.
New York / Newport

Introduction

The practice of behavioral dermatology encompasses the diagnosis
and management of a etiologically diverse set of disorders which
phenotypically manifest with dermatologic presentations. Not only
are primary behavioral etiologies included, but also primary
dermatologic conditions with secondary or contributory behavioral
components. It is not uncommon, for example, for veterinary or human
patients to experience anxiety, tension, or stress secondary to chronic
or acute dermatologic conditions. Ultimately, it is the interplay
between
neurosensory, dermatologic, and behavioral components which contribute
to
the manifestation of clinical signs associated with psychocutaneous
syndromes, including:

Self injurious behaviors

Compulsive disorders

Stereotypic behaviors

Displacement activities

Other anxiety related behaviors

Attention seeking behavior

Sensory Neuropathies

Psychotic Illnesses

A diagnosis of self-injurious behavior in small animals must meet the
criteria of barbering or removal of hair and/or abrasion, petechiation,
or ulceration of any body part using the teeth, tongue, claws, or an
external substrate (e.g. rubbing against a wall). A condition for a
diagnosis of SIB is that these behaviors must be demonstrated
repeatedly
and consistently in the absence of any primary dermatologic or
physiologic
condition.

In veterinary behavioral medicine, compulsive behaviors may be defined
as
sequences of movements which serve no obvious purpose or function and
which
occur repetitively, out-of-context or at an excessive frequency or
duration,
and in a relatively unvaried fashion. In most cases they are derived
from
behaviors which are part of the animal's normal behavioral
repertoire.

While such behaviors in animals have been traditionally referred to as
stereotypies, to establish a diagnosis of a compulsive disorder, the
behavior must occur outside of its normal context or at a frequency or
duration which exceeds that necessary to achieve a real or potential
goal and must interfere with the patient's ability to function
normally
in its social environment.

Considering these criteria, it is evident that some patients presenting

to the small animal practitioner may meet the conditions for both self-
injurious behavior and compulsive disorder. Compulsive behaviors
associated
with dermatologic signs are most commonly classified as grooming
compulsive
disorders, although some may be neurotic in origin. In canine patients
these
may include acral lick dermatitis/granuloma (ALD/ALG), flank ****ing,
tail
chewing (which may or may not be associated with tail chasing),
excessive
chewing of the feet and/or nails, and excessive scratching. Other
compulsive
behaviors observed in canine patients may be classified as
hallucinatory (e.g.
fly/light chasing, prey searching, staring); locomotor (e.g. circling,
tail
chasing, fence running); eating/drinking (e.g. fabric ****ing,
psychogenic
polydypsia, some picas); vocal (e.g. rhythmic barking, barking at food
or
inanimate objects); or neurotic (e.g. vicious self-biting, spontaneous
aggression to humans).

In feline patients compulsive behaviors associated with grooming
include
psychogenic dermatitis, feline hyperesthesia syndrome, and excessive
chewing
of the feet and/or nails. Other compulsive behaviors noted in feline
patients
may be categorized as in canine patients as hallucinatory (e.g. prey
chasing
or searching, air batting), locomotor (e.g. paw shaking, head shaking,
pacing), vocalization (e.g. repetitive howling / crying), or neurotic
(e.g. vicious self-
biting, spontaneous aggression to humans).

A diagnosis of self-injurious behavior may be established independent
of
compulsive behavior. In the author's experience, a significant
percentage
of cases referred for consultation on potential compulsive grooming
behavior
do not meet the criteria for compulsive disorders. Behavioral
conditions
presenting with dermatologic signs exclusive of compulsive disorders
include
some attention-seeking behaviors, feline hyperesthesia, and certain
anxiety-
related behaviors.

Anxiety may be defined as an apprehensive anticipation of future danger
or
misfortune accompanied by a feeling of dysphoria and/or somatic
symptoms of
tension. Anxieties may be internally or externally focused and may be
in
response to real or perceived stimuli. Anxiety may result from
motivational
states of conflict (the tendency to simultaneously perform more than
one type
of activity) or frustration (engagement in a sequence of behaviors
which cannot
be completed because of physical or psychological obstacles).

Because of contributory factors of stress, pain, and pruritus
associated with
many lesions, a primary diagnosis of a behavioral disorder should only
be made
after thorough dermatologic and medical evaluation. Even with a
presumptive
behavioral diagnosis, after medical causes are ruled out, secondary
dermatologic sequelae may develop as a result of chronic trauma to the
skin.

Neurochemistry

Although anxiety, panic, and phobia disorders are related, different
neuroanatomic models have been proposed for each. Complex neurochemical
mechanisms involving dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABA-ergic,
noradrenergic,
and opioid systems may be involved in the manifestation of these
disorders.

Numerous clinical studies and case reports have explored
pharmacological
manipulation of the above neurotransmitter systems in patients with
anxiety-
related conditions with varying results. Differences in responses to
pharmacotherapy may be reflective of individual variations in
neuroanatomic
and neurochemical function. Therefore, it is important that the
clinician
consider the underlying motivational state and possible neurochemical
correlates
when assigning behavioral diagnoses and recommending pharmacologic and
behavioral management.

Clinical Presentations

Evaluation of patients presenting for dermatological conditions with
suspected psychogenic components or origins should incorporate not only

a broad-based medical work-up but also a careful review of the
behavioral
history and direct observation of the patient. Table 1 provides a list
of
important considerations to address in the behavioral history. A
videotape
of the patient exhibiting any relevant problem behaviors recorded by
the
owner can provide valuable clues to the practitioner.

Stressful Environmental Conditions

It is not uncommon for both veterinary clients and practitioners to be
concerned about "boredom" as a cause for compulsive,
self-injurious, or
anxiety related behaviors. While an assessment of boredom is
anthropomorphic
and most likely an oversimplification of the stresses a patient may be
experiencing in relation to its physical and social environment, it is
important and frequently contributory to the patient's presentation.

Stressors, which may contribute to the manifestation of
anxiety-related,
compulsive, and self-injurious behaviors, are noted in Table 2.
Behaviors
that may be elicited in response to stress include changes in appetite,

grooming behaviors, elimination patterns, social interaction, and
activity.

Attention-Seeking Behavior

A significant percentage of cases referred for evaluation of compulsive

or self-injurious behaviors are ultimately diagnosed as
attention-seeking
behaviors. Animals can readily learn that not only disruptive behaviors

(e.g. barking, jumping, pawing, nuzzling), but also less directly
demanding
behaviors (e.g. limb/foot/preputial licking, chewing, scratching,
****ing,
pawing) often effectively get the client's attention. The clients may
have
historically tried a variety of approaches to discourage such
behaviors;
often such attempts include: varying degrees of physical and verbal
corrections, comforting the patient with physical touch and verbal
reassurances, banishment
with physical and social isolation, and ignoring the behavior to
varying degrees.

As the animal persists in the behavior, clients typically report that
they
eventually provide some form of attention; in so doing, the behavior
can
quite effectively be reinforced. It is important for the client to
recognize
that any form of attention, even physical punishment, may serve to
reinforce
the problem behavior.

In establishing a diagnosis of attention-seeking behavior, a careful
review
of the history should reveal that the patient will only demonstrate the
problem
behavior in the immediate presence or close proximity of the client.
Observation
of the patient at the time of consultation should reveal the behavior
is dramatically reduced or non-existent when the clients (or, in some
cases, all parties including
the clinician) are absent.

Feline Psychogenic Alopecia (Over grooming)

Psychogenic alopecia is characterized by excessive self-grooming that
is
initiated or intensified by non-organic causes, or which persists
beyond
resolution of an organic cause. The predominant clinical sign is
alopecia -
particularly in the area of the medial forelegs, caudal abdomen,
inguinal
region, tail, and/or dorsal lumbar areas - in which medical causes
have
been ruled out. Because cats may groom reclusively, excessive licking,
biting, scratching, or rubbing may or may not be observed by the
client.
Barbering and/or frank alopecia may be the only dermatologic signs.

In other cases, self-mutilation with possible secondary bacterial
infection
may be evident. Symmetrical alopecia of the caudomedial thighs and
ventrum
may be observed. Lichenification and hyperpigmentation may develop in
chronic
cases. A dermatitic form (atypical neurodermatitis) characterized by
bright red, elongated, oval streaks or plaques may result from
extensive grooming behavior.

Physical examination reveals: (1) short, broken hairs which are readily

palpated by stroking the affected area against the normal angle of hair

growth; (3) remaining hairs do not epilate easily; (4) microscopic
evaluation
of hairs reveal broken shafts; (5) hair re-growth occurs normally and
lesions
heal with placement of an Elizabethan collar, (6) significant amounts
of hair
upon fecal examination.

Licking of the hair and skin, nibbling, biting, facial rubbing of the
forepaws,
and scratching may all be observed in cats exhibiting normal grooming
behavior.
Although they regularly self-groom, specific times and percentages
relative to
other behaviors are unknown for household cats. Beyond such basic
purposes as
cleansing, removal of parasites, and thermoregulation, grooming in cats
may
occur as a displacement behavior (an activity that is performed out of
context
as a result of frustration) in response to social or environmental
stressors. Displacement grooming may be rooted in anxiety and may serve
to lower arousal,
deflect aggression from other individuals, or provide some distraction
for the cat.

While the occurrence of such behavior in feral or wildcat species is
not known, incidences of psychogenic alopecia have been noted in
captive wild cats. Psychogenic alopecia is reported to be more
prevalent in strictly indoor cats. A possible common variable in both
captive wild cats and indoor cats predisposing them to psychogenic
alopecia may be limited environmental stimulation. A seasonal
incidence, even in indoor cats, can result as a result in changes in
environmental and social stressors (e.g. accessibility / visibility of
other cats).

Feline Hyperesthesia Syndrome

Feline hyperesthesia syndrome refers to a complex of behaviors which
may
include: (1) behaviors similar to those observed in estrous females
(e.g.
increased motor activity, rolling, crouching with elevation of the
perineal
region, vocalizations); (2) excessive licking, plucking, biting, and/or
chewing, particularly at the tail, flank, ****, or lumbar areas; (3)
rippling of the skin,
muscle spasms, or twitches (especially dorsally), which may be
accompanied by vocalization, running, jumping, possible hallucinations,
or self-directed
aggression. Affected cats tend to be difficult to distract from the
behavior,
or, if successfully distracted, remain so for only a short period of
time.

As with feline psychogenic alopecia, environmental and social stressors
have
been associated with this disorder. The cues or changes precipitating
the
behavior may be endogenous. Cats may present with clinical signs
consistent
with hyperesthesia without evidence of alopecic or other dermatologic
lesions.

Review of the behavioral history may further support a lack of
excessive grooming.
Such cases support the hypothesis that this complex of behaviors may
represent a
number of discretely different phenomena. While not currently discussed
in the veterinary literature, based on clinical syndromes observed in
human patients, it
may be worthwhile to consider hallucinatory, rheumatologic, or
neurogenic origins
in future research.

Canine Acral Lick Dermatitis/Granuloma

While acral lick dermatitis (ALD/ALG) may be organic or psychogenic in
origin, this discussion will limit consideration to psychogenic
considerations.
A strong association appears to exist between licking and anxiety in
dogs. Other psychogenic associations include inadequate social
interaction, environmental stimulation, and opportunity for aerobic
activity. As with over-grooming in cats,
ALD may also be associated with displacement grooming in response to
social or environmental stressors.

Compulsive behavior or states of anxiety may contribute to ALD in some
patients. As with feline psychogenic alopecia, the occurrence and
incidence
of correlative behaviors to ALD in feral and wild canines is not known.
Among
domestic dogs, certain breeds appear to be over-represented -
Labrador retrievers,
Great Danes, Doberman pinchers, German shepherds, and some northern
breeds - with
some evidence of familial inheritance. This may be reflective not only
of a genetic component, but also selection pressures placed on these
breeds reflecting their affiliative work and social relationships with
humans.

Other Presentations

Other behaviors focusing on specific body parts which may be of
psychogenic
origin include tail biting, flank ****ing, preputial licking,
self-nursing,
licking in the **** region, and foot licking. Based on the evidence to
date,
these conditions represent the result of a heterogeneous array of
underlying
conditions, rather than specific dermatologic or behavioral diagnoses.
Attention seeking, displacement, self-injurious, compulsive, and other
anxiety-related
behaviors may lead to the establishment of these behaviors. Seizure
activity
involving the amygdala and ventro-medial hypothalamus can result in
stereotypic, self-directed, aggressive behaviors. The physiological
sensation of pruritus
may share common biochemical origins with some anxiety states, which
support
consideration of neuropsychodermatological etiologies.

Clinical Management

Considering the heterogeneous and potentially multifactorial origins of
compulsive, self-injurious, and anxiety-related behaviors, clinical
management should incorporate consideration of environmental stimuli,
social stimuli, the motivational state of the animal, and underlying
neurophysiological mechanisms in developing a treatment plan. A
hypothesis incorporating the above, which can account for the
patient's dermatological and behavioral manifestations, provides a
rational starting point from which a program of environmental,
behavioral, and pharmacological management can be based.

Environmental Management

Since the patient's environment may frequently contribute to the
establishment
of OCD, SIB, and anxiety-related behaviors, it is important to
manipulate the environment so as to eliminate stressors and
conflict-producing stimuli. If
this is not possible, systematic desensitization should be employed to
minimize
the effect of the environment. Client resistance is often encountered
and creativity
is often needed when proposing environmental changes. The client must
be committed
to proposed changes in the environment before employing behavioral and
pharmacological management.

Behavior Modification

Counter-conditioning and desensitization provide the framework of
behavior
modification. Counter-conditioning consists of teaching the patient new
behaviors which are incompatible with the problem behavior. Since SIB,
compulsive disorders, and related behaviors are often based in anxiety,
it
is often most effective to select for behaviors which encourage
relaxation.

Desensitization consists of reinforcing the selected new behaviors
while
very gradually introducing provocative cir***stances and environments.
Clients commonly wish to progress more rapidly than the patient can
effectively
accept. Patience, consistency, and commitment on the part of the client
are
critical for success to effectively support performance of the new
behaviors
in the face of increasingly provocative stimuli. For desensitization to
be
effective the patient must accept the direction and leadership of the
client.

Deference to the client can be established through routine and regular
reinforcement of leadership on a daily basis. This can be effectively
and gently achieved through asking the animal to sit for all routine
interactions with the client (i.e. receiving attention, love, meals and
treats; grooming and petting; interactive play; going outdoors / coming

inside).

Withdrawal of attention is an effective, gentle correction for failure
of deference. In all phases of counter-conditioning and
desensitization,
appropriate responses are effectively supported with encouragement and
small food rewards as positive reinforcement. Rewarding the patient at
any time when he/she is not exhibiting the problem behavior and is
relaxed
can further support counter-conditioning. Massage therapy, when the
patient
is relaxed, can further facilitate relaxation and encourage appropriate

interaction between the animal and client. The above techniques are not

limited to application in dogs, but can be effectively employed with
cats
and other species with appropriate modification.

Client responses to the patient, particularly when they are performing
the
problem behavior, can be problematic. Despite their history and
experience
of the problem behavior, the client should never express their
frustration
in any way in the presence of the patient. Doing so may reinforce any
anxiety
which the animal may be experiencing. Neither should the client provide
any
measure of comfort - verbal, physical, or emotional - to the
patient while
performing the problem behaviors. Attention-seeking behaviors are based
on
the response of the client or, in some cases, other people. Attempts to

distract the behavior or even aversive responses may be preferred by
some
animals and may reinforce the observed behavior.

Interactive activity and opportunities for aerobic exercise can be
critical
components of behavioral modification. Exercise and mental stimulation
in
cats can be encouraged with a bit of creativity. Opportunities for
environmental
and social enrichment may include: augmenting accessible three
dimensional space;
adding window perches, sisal wrapped scratching posts, and "kitty
condominiums";
varying the location and availability of limited resources (e.g.
resting places); providing an ample variety of both purchased and
homemade toys; scattering food
into small portions throughout the house or employing intermittent
feeding devices; playing with clients utilizing "fishing lure" type
toys, laser pens, and other stimulating games; and training "trick"
behaviors through shaping with a secondary reinforcer (e.g. clicker).

Agility, fly ball, and freestyle provide dogs the opportunity for
interactive,
aerobic activity with the clients beyond traditional activities such as
field
work, sheep herding, Frisbee tossing, ball retrieving, and running /
jogging.

Interactive exercise can facilitate desensitization to anxiety
producing
situations by expose the dog to a variety of potentially provocative
stimuli
while providing something else on which to focus. Interaction with the
dog in
such activities also provides something to which he/she can look
forward,
encourages mental and physical agility, and serves to enhance the
relationship
between the dog and the client.

Pharmacologic Support

Rational use of pharmacologic support can substantially enhance the
effects
of behavioral and environmental modification in patients with
anxiety-related
behaviors, compulsive disorders, and SIB. Management of patients
diagnosed with attention-seeking behavior should be limited to
behavioral and environmental
modification unless the underlying motivation is based in anxiety.

Pharmacothe****utic agents should be selected to specifically address
the
motivational state of the patient and a proposed underlying
neurophysiological
mechanism of action. With few exceptions, the application of
psychotropic
medications to veterinary behavioral medicine constitutes extra-label
use.

It is important to note that extra-label use requires compliance with
pre-
medication data bases routinely used in human medicine. Hepatic
metabolism
and renal clearance of these compounds further supports pre-medication
assessment of serum biochemistry, CBC, and thyroid function.
Psychotropic
medications, as a category, may affect thyroid hormone concentrations,
potentiate cardiac arrhythmias, potentiate epileptiform seizures, and
increase
hepatic enzyme activities (particularly SAP). Practitioners are well
advised to
become familiar with the specific indications, contraindications, side
effects
and pharmacodynamics of psychotropics which they wish to employ.

Amitriptyline (Elavil®) and doxepin (Adapin®, Sinequan®) are
tricyclic antidepressants (TCA's) which are utilized in human and
veterinary medicine as an anxiolytics. Both exert their primary
clinical effects by inhibiting the pre-synaptic reuptake of serotonin
and norepinephrine to varying degrees. Both have antihistaminic
properties brought about by their ability to block H1 and H2 receptors.
Amitriptyline equally affects H1 and H2 receptors while doxepin is much
more selective for H1 receptors. These medications, particularly
amitriptyline, also effectively block muscarinic cholinergic receptors
resulting in anticholinergic side effects. Additional reported side
effects include weight gain, transient sedation (particularly in cats),
gastrointestinal disturbances, potential cardiac conduction
disturbances and a suggested role in sick euthyroid syndrome at higher
doses. Contraindications may include hepatic, renal, or cardiac
disease. This class of drugs should not be administered concurrently
with MAOI's, selegiline (Anipryl®), or L-tryptophan. Amitriptyline
is a first choice medication for anxiolytic therapy because of the
relative cost and rate of clinical response relative to most
psychotropic medications. It has distinct disadvantages of having a
particularly bitter taste and a narrow the****utic index associated
with a high rate of toxicity with overdose. For patients in which
dermatitis, neuralgia, or pain is associated with an anxiety related
condition, the antihistaminic properties of these compounds combined
with their noradrenergic effects (and the potential role of
norepinephrine in managing neurogenic inflammation) can prove to be
quite effective in managing clinical signs.

Clomipramine (Clomicalm®) is a TCA which is relatively more
serotonergic and less anticholinergic than previously mentioned
medications. Clomicalm® has been approved by the FDA for use in dogs
in the management of separation anxiety and may be an effective aid in
the management of other anxiety-related behaviors. Clomipramine is also
the only TCA which has do***ented efficacy in the management of
compulsive behaviors in both humans and animals. As a tricyclic
antidepressant, potential side effects and contraindications of
clomipramine are similar to those of other medications in that class.

Fluoxetine (Prozac®) and paroxetine (Paxyl®), as selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), share a common mechanism of action of
being serotonergic without substantially affecting the reuptake of
norepinephrine or dopamine. The relatively specific action of SSRI's
is associated with fewer side effects. Adverse effects reported with
SSRI's include increased anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, weight
loss, gastrointestinal disturbances, and alterations in cardiac
conduction. Despite the relative serotonin specificity of SSRI's
compared to clomipramine, they appear to be equally effective in the
management of OCD. As with TCA's, SSRI's should not be administered
concurrently with MAOI's, selegiline, or L-tryptophan.
Contraindications may include hepatic, renal, or cardiac disease.
Paroxetine is the most potent SSRI available, but it does have some
anticholinergic effects. Metabolism of paroxetine is unique in that
almost no active metabolites are produced. This feature may favor the
administration of paroxetine in elderly patients or animals with liver
or kidney disease.

Table 1: Important Considerations in the Behavioral History Detailed
description
of the patient's behavior immediately prior to, during, and after
eliciting problem behavior Chronology, incidence, and progression of
problem behavior. Ease with which problem behavior may be interrupted
and tendency for return to behavior
Locations, cir***stances, and potential eliciting stimuli associated
with the problem behavior Review of other problem behaviors Review of
home environment including all persons and animals in household
Presence of the client(s), other people, and other animals in relation
to animal when behavior occurs Responses of the client(s), other
people, and other animals in relation to the problem behavior
Patient's background including adoption source, familial history,
early temperament/behavior of patient,
and history of obedience work.

Interactions with familiar and unfamiliar household guests Dietary
history including consideration of who feeds patient and review of
feeding schedule Daily routine of patient in relation to other human
and animal members of household Specific types,
amount, and frequency of exercise Specific form, duration, and
frequency of interaction with client(s) and other people Notation of
sleeping location and favorite resting places Review of medical history
with notation of any current medications being administered


Table 2: Potential Environmental & Social Stressors Inadequate mental
stimulation
Inadequate aerobic exercise Inadequate interaction with family or other
pets
Limited access to essential resources Social Isolation Overcrowding
Status-related conflicts Territorial-related conflicts Addition or
loss of family members or pets
Changes in health status of family members or pets Changes in daily
routine of family members or pets New home / environment Changes in
physical environment Boarding
Hospitalization
  Reply With Quote
7 10th September 09:32
jettas mom
External User
 
Posts: 1
Default Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


so you would say that butchie's allergy was not to food, but rather to
something in your previous environment in houston? interesting... so
sorry about his disc problems. we are careful with jetta's weight but
she does jump off the couch- and it really worries me! thanks for your
story- it is helpful to know that other people are facing the same
battles!
  Reply With Quote
8 10th September 09:32
jettas mom
External User
 
Posts: 1
Default Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


thanks for your note. we tried both conventionally prepared
elimination diets (i.e from the vet) as well as our own home brew. i
feel as though we have given these diets ample time - 6-7 weeks. we
have now been feeding her a diet of fresh venison (my brother-in-law is
a hunter) and zucchini with a little rice. she has lost a lot of
weight on this diet and it is not seeming to be helping, so now we are
mixing in a bit of canned (abady apex 1). she has had all manner of
skin tests- for mites, mange, etc.. all have been negative. she
recenty had a blood test- to check for thyroid levels, among other
things, and all were at normal levels. she is now itchier than ever-
licking her paws and scratching her ears. we put her on antibiotics to
clear up the ear infections but now she has these scaly rashes all over
her face and ears! i really have ever heard of anything like this! we
are planning to take her to florida for the holidays so it will be a
real test to see if she gets better outside our home.
  Reply With Quote
9 10th September 09:32
steve crane
External User
 
Posts: 1
Default Help for Dachshund with Chronic Skin & Ear Problems


hydrolyzate diet. Perhaps you did, but I don't see it in the listing
above. You really need to take the time to try a hydrolyzate diet for 6
week period before assuming that dietary adverse reactions are not the
issue. A hydrolyzate food contains no intact proteins that can trigger
the immune response, instead the proteins are broken down into pieces
too small for the immune system to detect. Check with your veterinarian
and give this a try. If there are no positive results you can quit
worrying about food. You will have to follow VERY strict feeding
regimen - absolutely NO other foods of any kind, no supplements, no
treats, no occasional snakies for the table. If you are unable to
follow such a strict regimen the whole test will be worthless.
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