John-melb 2009-09-17 03:33:01
Found this on “Guncite”
Excerpted from, Kates, Don B., et. al, Guns and Public Health: Epidemic
of Violence or Pandemic of Propaganda? Originally published as 61 Tenn.
L. Rev. 513-596 (1994):
“Looking only to official criminal records, data over the past thirty
years consistently show that the mythology of murderers as ordinary
citizens does not hold true. Studies have found that approximately 75%
of murderers have adult criminal records, and that murderers average a
prior adult criminal career of six years, including four major adult
felony arrests. These studies also found that when the murder occurred
“[a]bout 11% of murder arrestees [were] actually on pre-trial
release”–that is, they were awaiting trial for another offense.”
“The fact that only 75% of murderers have adult crime records should
not be misunderstood as implying that the remaining 25% of murderers
are non-criminals. The reason over half of those 25% of murderers don’t
have adult records is that they are juveniles. Thus, by definition they
cannot have an adult criminal record.”
Sources cited by the above excerpt:
An FBI data run of murder arrestees nationally over a four year
period in the 1960s found 74.7% to have had prior arrests for violent
felony or burglary. In one study, the Bureau of Criminal Statistics
found that 76.7% of murder arrestees had criminal histories as did 78%
of defendants in murder prosecutions nationally. In another FBI data
run of murder arrestees over a one year period, 77.9% had prior
criminal records [Guncite note: 50.1% had prior convictions (Kleck and
Bordua at p. 293)]. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Rep.
The annual Chicago Police Department bulletin Murder Analysis shows
the following figures for the percentage of murderers who had prior
Five year average for 1987-1991: 74.68%
[Normally, most police departments and the FBI do not compile prior
criminal record statistics of homicide offenders.]
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Rep. 43 (1975).
John Dilulio, The Question of Black Crime, 117 Pub. Interest 3, 16
Kathleen M. Heide, Weapons Used by Juveniles and Adults to Kill
Parents, 11 Behav. Sci. & Law 397, 398 (1993).
More statistics from local studies:
* Philadelphia – “[T]he tragedy of it all is that murder, in this
city at least, is not exactly a mystery… A look at the homicides
committed between 1996 and 1999 reveals a pattern… Virtually all
alleged murderers were the same race as their victims… One killing in
four was directly related to drugs, and another quarter were the result
of what the police identified as ‘arguments.’ Most of the victims and
killers probably had histories of violent crime, drug and weapons
arrests. It’s possible that as many as half of the murderers were
actually on probation or parole or awaiting trial or sentencing at the
time they killed their victims. …
“Our examination of the criminal and court histories of 100
randomly selected murder victims and 100 randomly selected alleged
murderers showed that many have criminal backgrounds.
“Among alleged murderers, almost 9 out of 10 (86%) had criminal
records. Close to half had been charged with either violent offenses
and/or weapons offenses, and 57 percent had been charged with drug
“Victims were less likely to have criminal backgrounds, but
still, over half (52%) had been charged with at least one offense prior
to their murder. On average, those homicide victims who had criminal
histories had 3.7 arrests prior to their death.” (Source)
* San Francisco – In 1999, 74% of identified homicide suspects had
prior criminal histories (source [pdf] [p. 176]). 67.5% of the homicide
victims had a criminal history. 75% of juveniles and 48% of the adult
homicide and assault victims had between 2 and 10 felony charges
(source [pdf] [p.115]).
* Indianapolis/Marion County – Homicide review conducted from 1997
thru mid-1998. Victims and suspects were chronic offenders.
Among homicide suspects:
o 75% had either an adult or juvenile criminal record.
o An average of 3.7 adult arrests.
o Those with a prior record averaged 6 adult arrests and 5.5
Among homicide victims:
o 63% had adult or juvenile criminal records.
o An average of 4.6 adult arrests.
o Those with a prior record averaged 8 adult arrests and 4.5
o For the 206 suspects and victims:
+ 1600 total arrests
+ 500 arrests for violent crimes
+ 800 convictions
o 53% of homicide incidents were drug-related.
* Minneapolis – Data was analyzed from January 1994 through May
1997. Nearly 45 percent of all homicides appeared to be gang related.
More than 40 percent of gang members who were homicide victims or
suspects had been on probation and 76.8 percent had arrest histories
prior to the homicide incidents, with an average of 9.5 arrests.
Suspects and arrestees had 7.4 prior arrests and victims had 7.5 prior
* Tuscon – “In 2000, when domestic violence suspects are excluded,
more than 70 percent of the accused had criminal records before they
were charged with homicide.” (Source)
* Charlotte – “In a sample of 545 adult gunshot victims, 71% had
been previously arrested, and 64% had been convicted of a crime, with
an average of eleven arrests among those with a prior arrest record.”
(Kleck, Gary. Targeting Guns: Firearms and Their Control, p 3. Walter
de Gruyter, Inc., New York, 1997. Citing Lumb, Richard C., and Paul C.
Friday. 1994. City of Charlotte Gunshot Study. Charlotte: Department of
Criminal Justice, University of North Carolina.)
* Atlanta – “In 1997, 80% of homicide offenders and 60% of homicide
victims had a criminal record of a drug violation… of homicide
offenders, nearly 50% had 5 or more prior drug offenses, 20% had 3 or 4
prior drug offenses, and 10% had 1 or 2 prior drug offenses. A prior
drug offense was not as prolific for homicide victims, but a high
proportion of homicide victims did have prior drug-offense records.
“Toxicology reports on homicide victims indicate that nearly 40%
of homicide victims tested positive for cocaine, 25% tested positive
for alcohol, and 20% tested positive for alcohol and cocaine. This
means that 85% of homicide victims were under the influence of cocaine,
alcohol, or cocathylene. Marijuana is also present in approximately 25%
of homicide victims as well. Surprisingly, virtually no other drug
appears in the toxicology reports. Only 15% of homicide victims did not
test positive for alcohol, cocaine, or cocathylene.” (P. 131) (Rojek,
Dean G. “The Homicide and Drug Connection,” in Paul H. Blackman, et
al,. “The Varieties of Homicide and its Research “(pdf) (Quantico, VA,
FBI Academy, 2000);
In 2001, the 68 largest cities accounted for 42% of reported homicides
which house only 18% of the U.S. population. (Homicide figures obtained
from 2001 FBI Uniform Crime Report, p. 201.)
Volokh summarizes prior arrest data for homicide offenders from the
report, Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 1998:
* 81% of all homicide defendants have at least one arrest on their
* 66% have two or more arrests.
* 67% have at least one felony arrest.
* 56% have two or more felony arrests.
* 70% have at least one conviction.
* 54% have at least one felony conviction.
Also from the report: “In 1998, the 75 largest counties accounted for
37% of the U.S. population. According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime
Reports program for 1998, these jurisdictions accounted for 50% of all
reported serious violent crimes in the United States.”
A Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report (Recidivism of Prisoners
Released in 1983 (pdf) Beck, A., Shipley B, April 1989) shows within “3
years after their release from prison in 1983, an estimated 62.5% of
the released prisoners had been rearrested; 46.7% had been reconvicted;
and 41.4% had been reincarcerated.”
“An estimated 67,898 of the 108,580 prisoners who were released in 1983
were rearrested and charged with 326,746 new offenses by year end 1986.
More than 50,000 of the new charges were violent offenses, including
“Those released after serving time for murder or non negligent
manslaughter were nearly 5 times more likely than other prisoners to be
rearrested for homicide.”
Until recently, juvenile crime records were generally kept
confidential, unavailable for analysis, and eventually expunged or
sealed (source). (Of course this means the resumes of career offenders
should contain higher arrest averages than cited above.) However, some
recent studies have been allowed access to juvenile records. Similar
patterns of chronic offending among youth suspects and victims have
* Boston – An analysis of knife and gun youth homicides from 1990
to 1994 found 77% of offenders and 75% of victims had prior
arraignments in Massachusetts. The offenders averaged 9.7 charges per
killer and 9.5 offenses per victim. 54% of the known killers had been
sentenced to probation versus 42% of the victims. (25% of the known
offenders committed homicide while on probation.) (Kennedy, David M. et
al. 1996. “Youth Violence in Boston: Gun Markets, Serious Youth
Offenders, and a Use-reduction Strategy.” Law and Contemporary
Problems. Vol. 59, no. 1. P. 148)
“Probation officers said that it was rare to lose a kid to gun
violence who had not previously been on probation, and the dark joke
among gang officers was whether it would be ethical to take out life
insurance on certain kids.” (Kennedy, et al. P. 158.)
* Baltimore – “In 1997, when the Baltimore City Police Department
analyzed internal data on shootings, it found that more than 50 percent
of victims and suspects were age 24 and younger. It also found that
most violence was caused by violent drug ‘crews’ that were using
handguns to settle disputes.” (Source)
* Los Angeles – A review of all drive-by shootings in Los Angeles
in 1991 in which a child or adolescent under the age of 18 was shot at,
injured, or killed reported 86% of homicide victims were documented
members of violent street gangs (p.326) and 71% of all victims were
gang members (p.325). (Hutson, H. Range, et al. Feb. 3, 1994.
“Adolescents and children injured or killed in drive-by shootings in
Los Angeles.” The New England Journal of Medicine. Vol 330, no. 5.)
The average arrest rates cited above for both juveniles and adults
probably underestimates the amount of prior criminal activity. “Most
crimes are neither reported to nor observed by the police.” (Kennedy,
David. July 1998. “Pulling Levers: Getting Deterrence Right.” National
Institute of Justice Journal).
“Much crime remains unreported, and many criminals remain unarrested
and unconvicted. One national expert, Delbert Elliott, has estimated
that only two persons are arrested per 100 serious violent offenses: 3
per 100 males and 1 per 100 females. Elliott estimated that only 3
males were arrested per 100 rapes or aggravated assaults and only 2 per
100 robberies. Even in offenses where a weapon or serious injury was
involved, only 9 per 100 robberies and 4 per 100 aggravated assaults
resulted in arrests.” (Source)
Another reason most of the figures cited above probably represent a
lower-bound estimate of prior criminal activity is that arrest records
from outside the locality were not included. In other words, homicide
victims or offenders who were not residents of the locality conducting
the study or had relocated from other areas would not have their
complete arrest histories accounted for. For example, gang migration
could contribute to undercounting prior arrest records.
Tom 2009-09-17 14:36:03
A certain SCAP of this group said
“**I see. So society needs to wait until AFTER you murder someone,
enacting legislation to prevent you from doing so. Is that about it? ”
This material clearly show that this arguement is absolute c***, the
people who are most likely to pose a threat to the rest of the
community with a gun ARE NOT LEGALLY ALLOWED TO OWN ONE!
SCAP should spend more time looking at the REAL world and less time
listening to the sort of c*** peddled by Alpers.